Oral cancer which is also known as mouth cancer is the cancer of the lining of the lips, mouth, or upper throat. In the mouth, it firstly appears as a painless white patch, that thickens and evolves red patches, an ulcer, and continues to mature. When on the lips, it commonly looks like a persistent crusting ulcer that does not cure and slowly spreads. Other symptoms may include difficult or painful new lumps, swallowing or bumps in the neck, a swelling in the mouth, or a feeling of numbness in the mouth or lips. Risk factors increases by the usage of tobacco and alcohol. With both tobacco and drinking alcohol, the risk of oral cancer increases 15 times more. HPV infection, sun exposure on the lower lip and chewing paan are also the risk factors. The subgroup of head and neck cancers is Oral cancer. Diagnosis of Oral cancer is made by biopsy of the concerning area, followed by investigation with CT scan, MRI, PET, and examination to determine if it has spread to distant parts of the body.
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